What do you see as the difference between learning about and figuring out how science works? Learning about science is reading a textbook on the content/concept being learning, taking notes on the content to summarize the information learned, it is about learning the vocabulary of the concept, going over diagrams, and doing experiments that you already the outcomes to your hypothesis.
Which of the two ideas best represents the most recent research on how science is learned today? The NGSS demand that science should be taught by figuring out how and why science works. Using phenomena to help drive the concepts to students. It should be more student centered with the teacher being the facilitator to help with answering questions and checking for understanding making sure that the students are progressing. Students should be able to explore concepts, work and collaborate with their peers, analyze their data and reflect on what was observed and learned. As students discuss their findings and reasonings with one another this should impact what is done next to expand on their prior knowledge.
Why might the idea of "figure out" be included on a section on "How Students Learn Science?" In the video from NGSS with an interview from Brian Reiser, he states that phenomena in integrated in the lessons of the NGSS. This gives students a purpose to learn about how science impacts them in their daily lives. In the sixth grade we were discussing how the earth has warmed from prior years to recent years. Showing videos and pictures to the students about what the earth thermal temperatures were to recent times amazed them. We talked about how the world had "x" amount of glaciers and what the world has currently. This brought on great research and discussion with the class. They shared what they learned and the reasonings why this was happening. Students discussed what would happen if the world temperatures continued to increase.